Goatfishes of the world: An updated list of taxonomy, distribution and conservation status (Teleostei: Mullidae)

Souror ECHRESHAVI, Hamid Reza ESMAEILI, Saud M. Al JUFAILI

Abstract

Members of the Mullidae family are characterized by body elongate and almost compressed, head and body completely scaled (except the periorbital region of some Upeneus), with 27 to 39 vertical scale rows from the upper end of gill opening to the base of caudal fin; chin with 2 long hyoid barbels; opercle usually with a small flat spine; two well-separated dorsal fin and 24 vertebrae. They inhabit brackish and marine waters above sandy to muddy bottoms as well as coral reefs. Mullids are distributed worldwide in tropical, subtropical, and temperate habitats of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea, Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean, southern and eastern Australia, and New Zealand between the upper littoral and the upper slope. This checklist aims to list all the valid Mullidae fishes of the world. It lists 101 species in 6 genera. The most diverse genus is Upeneus (48 species, 47%), followed by Parupeneus (35 species, 35%), Mulloidichthys (7 species, 7%); Mullus (6 species 6%); Pseudupeneus (3 species, 3%), and Upeneichthys (2 species, 2%). For this genus, several taxonomic species groups, including moluccensis, margarethae, stenopsis, japonicus, suahelicus, and tragula have been proposed. Some of the species are still ungrouped. The high inter-and intraspecific phenotypic diversity among the genus Upeneus requires a careful taxonomic approach regarding both species diagnoses and descriptions, re-descriptions, resurrections, or synonomizations. Among 101 listed species, 54 (55%) species are Least Concern (LC), 36 (36%) species are Not Evaluated (NE), 6 (6%) species are Data Deficient (DD), 1 (1%) species are Vulnerable (VU), 1 (1%) species are Near Threatened (NT) and 1 (1%) species are Endangered (EN) of the Red List of IUCN. Some of the less-known species, or species from less explored areas, merit more attention and approval of a similar fine-resolution taxonomy approach, ideally accompanied by comprehensive integrative molecular studies, to more completely understand the overall diversity, the speciation events, and the evolutionary pathways involved in mullids.

Keywords

Fish diversity, Perciformes, Systematics, Conservation.

Full Text:

PDF

References

Artüz M.L., Fricke R. 2019. First and northernmost record of Upeneus moluccensis (Actinopterygii: Perciformes: Mullidae) from the Sea of Marmara. Acta Ichthyologica et Piscatoria 49(1): 53-58.

Bauchot M. L., Desoutter M., Randall J.E. 1984. Catalogue critique des types de poissons du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (Suite) (Famille des Serranidae). Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, Sèries 4, Section A: Zoologie, Biologie et Écologie Animales 6(3suppl.): 3-82.

Ben-Tuvia A. 1986. Mullidae. Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Pp. 610-613.

Ben-Tuvia A., Golani D. 1989. A new species of goatfish (Mullidae) of the genus Upeneus from the Red Sea and the eastern Mediterranean. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution 36(2): 103-112.

Bleeker P. 1863. Mémoire sur les poissons de la côte de Guinée. Natuurkundige Verhandelingen Hollandsche Maatschappye Weetensc happen te Haarlem (Ser. 2) 18: 1-136.

Bleeker P. 1876. Description de quelques espèces insulindiennes inédites des genre Oxyurichthys, Paroxyurichthys et Cryptocentrus. Verslagen en Mededeelingen der Koninklikje Akademie van Wetenschappen, Letterkunde, en Schoone Kunsten te Amsterdam 9(2):138-148.

Bleeker P. 1852. Nieuwe bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van Ceram. Natuurkundig tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 3: 689¬714.

Bleeker P. 1854. Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van de Kokos¬eilanden. Natuurkundig tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 7: 37¬48.

Bleeker P. 1855b. Bijdrage tot de kennis der ichthyologische fauna van de Batoe¬eilanden. Natuurkundig tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië 8: 305¬328.

Boeseman M. 1947) Revision of the fishes collected by Burger and von Siebold in Japan. 242 pp., 5 pls.

Boeseman, M. 1947. Revision of the fishes collected by Burger and Von Siebold in Japan. Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) 1947. 28: i–vii + 1–242. pls. 1-5.

Böhlke J.E. 1953. A catalogue of the type specimens of recent fishes in the Natura1 History Museum of Stanford University. Stanford Ichthyological Bulletin 5(l): 168.

Böhlke J.E. 1953. A new stathmonotid blcnny from the Pacific coast of Mexico. Zoological, N.Y. 38(3): 145-149.

Bos A.R. 2014. Upeneus nigromarginatus, a new species of goatfish (Perciformes: Mullidae) from the Philippines. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 62: 745-753.

Cuvier G., Valenciennes A. 1831. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Vol. 7. Paris: Chez F.G. Levrault.

Cuvier G., Valenciennes A. 1829. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome troisième. Suite du Livre troisième. Des percoïdes à dorsale unique à sept rayons branchiaux et à dents en velours ou en cardes. Histoire naturelle des poissons 3: 500.

Day F. 1868. On some new or imperfectly known ¬shes of India. Proceedings of the General Meetings for Scienti¬c Business of the Zoological Society of London 1867: 935-942.

Eschmeyer W.N., Fricke R., Laan R. 2022. Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. http:// researcharchive. calacademyorg/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. Accessed on 15 Jan. 2022.

Fourmanoir P., Guézé P. 1967. Poissons nouveaux ou peu connus provenant de la Réunion et de Madagascar. Cah. O.R.S.T.O.M., Sér. Océanogr 5: 47-58.

Fowler H.W. 1933) The Fishes of the Families Banjosidae, Lethrinidae, Sparidae, Girellidae, Kyphosidae, Oplegnathidae, Gerridae, Mullidae, Emmelichthyidae, Sciaenidae, Sillaginidae, Arripidae, and Enoplosidae: Collected by the United States Bureau of Fisheries Steamer" Albatross," Chiefly in Philippine Seas and Adjacent Waters Vol. 12. US Government Printing Office.

Gill T.N. 1862. Catalogue of the fishes of Lower California, in the Smithsonian Institution collected by Mr. J. Xanthus. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 14: 242- 262.

Golani, D. 2001. Upeneus davidaromi, a new deep water goatfish (Osteichthyes, Mullidae) from the Red Sea. Israel Journal of Zoology 47(2): 111-121.

Golani D., Galil, B. 1991. Trophic relationships of colonizing and indigenous goatfishes (Mullidae) in the eastern Mediterranean with special emphasis on decapod crustaceans. Hydrobiology 218(1): 27-33.

Golani D., Ritte U. 1999. Genetic relationship in goatfishes (Mullidae: Perciformes) of the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, with remarks on Suez Canal migrants. Scientia Marina 63(2): 129-135.

Hubbs C.L., Marini T.L. 1933. Nueva especie de Mullidae para la Argentina: Mullus argentinae. Physis 11: 346.

Hutchins J.B., Casagrande V.A. 1990. Development of the lateral geniculate nucleus: interactions between retinal afferent, cytoarchitectonic, and glial cell process lamination in ferrets and tree shrews. Journal of Comparative Neurology 298(1): 113-128.

Jordan D.S., Evermann B.W. 1905. The aquatic resources of the Hawaiian Islands. Part I. The shore fishes. Bull. US Government Printing Office (1903) 23, pt. l: xxvii + 1-574.

Kim B.J. 2002. Comparative anatomy and phylogeny of the family Mullidae (Teleostei: Perciformes). Memoirs of the Graduate School of Fisheries Sciences, Hokkaido University 49(1): 1-74.

Kim B.J., Amaoka K. 2001. A new species, Parupeneus procerigena, from the Saya de Malha Bank in the western Indian Ocean (Perciformes: Mullidae). Ichthyological Research 48(1): 45-50.

Kim B.J., & Nakaya K. 2002. Upeneus australiae, a new goatfish (Mullidae: Perciformes) from Australia. Ichthyological Research 49(2): 128-132.

Klausewitz W. & Nielsen J.G. 1965. - On Forsskål’s collection of fishes in the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen. Spolia Zoologica Musei Hauniensis 22: l-29.

Lachner E.A. 1954. A revision of the goatfish genus Upeneus with descriptions of two new species. Proceeding of the United States National Museum 103: 497-532.

Miller R.R. 1943. Cyprinodont salinus, a new species of fish from Death Valley, California. Copeia 1943(2): 69-78.

Miller R.R. 1948. The cyprinodont fishes of the Death Valley system of eastern California and southwestern Nevada. Miscellaneous Publications, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan 68: 1-155.

Miller R.R. 1956. A new genus and species of cyprinodontoid fish from San Luis Potosi, Mexico, with remarks on the subfamily Cyprinodontidae. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan 581: 1-17.

Miller R.R. 1968. Two new fishes of the genus Cyprinodont, from the Cuatro Cienegas basin, Coahuila, Mexico. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Zoology University of Michigan 659: 1-15.

Miller R.R. 1976. Four new pupfishes of the genus Cyprinodont from Mexico, with a key to the C. eximius complex. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 75(2): 68-75.

Nelson J.S.; Grande T.C., Wilson M.V.H. 2016. Fishes of the World. 5th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ. 707 p.

Ogilby JD. 1910. On some new fishes from the Queensland coast. Privately published as Endeavour Series I: 85-139.

Parenti P. 2021. A checklist of the gobioid fishes of the world (Percomorpha: Gobiiformes). Iranian Journal of Ichthyology 8: 1-480.

Randall J.E. 2004. Revision of the goatfish genus Parupeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae) with descriptions of two new species. Bishop Museum.

Randall J.E., Gueze P. 1980. Mulloidichthys mimicus n. sp. (Pisces, Mullidae) d'Oceanie, cas de mimicrie de Lutjanus kasmira (Pisces, Lutjanidae). Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Zoologie.

Randall J.E., Guézé P. 1984. Parupeneus margaritatus, a new species of goatfish (Mullidae) from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Cybium 18(4): 9-17.

Randall J.E., Heemstra, E. 2009. Three new goatfishes of the genus Parupeneus from the western Indian Ocean, with resurrection of P. seychellensis.

Randall J.E., King D.R. 2009. Parupeneus fraserorum, a new species of goatfish (Perciformes: Mullidae) from South Africa and Madagascar.

Randall J.E., Kulbicki M. 2006. A review of the goatfishes of the genus Upeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae) from New Caledonia and the Chesterfield Bank, with a new species, and four new records. Zoological Studies-Taipei 45(3): 298.

Randall J.E., Myers R.F. 2002. Parupeneus insularis, a new central Pacific species of goatfish (Perciformes: Mullidae) of the P. trifasciatus complex. Zoological Studies-Taipei 41(4): 431-440.

Randall J.E., Bauchot M.-L., Guézé P. 1993. Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn), a senior synonym of the Japanese goat¬ fish U. bensasi (Temminck et Schlegel). Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 40: 301-305.

Randall J.E., Gueze P. 1992. Upeneus francisi, a new goatfish (Perciformes: Mullidae) from Norfolk Island and New Zealand. Cybium 16: 21-29.

Smith R., Swain J. 1882. Notes on a collection of fishes from Johnston’s Islands, including descriptions of five new species. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 5: 119-143.

Smith J.L.B., Smith, M.M. 1963. The fishes of Seychelles: 1¬215, pis. 1¬98. Grahamstown

Steindachner F. 1900. Fische aus dem Stillen Ocean. Ergebnisse einer Reise nach dem Pacific (Schauinsland, 1896–1897). Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Wien 16: 174-178.

Temminck C.J., Schlegel, H. 1843. Pisces. In: Fauna Japonica, sive descriptio animalium quae in itinere per Japoniam suscepto annis 1823–30 collegit, notis observationibus et adumbrationibus illustravit P. F. de Siebold. Fauna Japonica, sive descriptio animalium quae in itinere per Japoniam, Parts 2-4, 21-72.

Temminck C.J., Schlegel H. 1843. Pisces. In: von Siebold, P.F. ed. Fauna Japonica, Parts 24. Lugduni, Batavorum. 21-72.

Uiblein F., McGrouther M. 2012. A new deep-water goatfish of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from northern Australia and the Philippines, with a taxonomic account of U. subvittatus and remarks on U. mascareinsis. Zootaxa 3550: 61-70.

Uiblein F. 2007. Goatfishes (Mullidae) as indicators in tropical and temperate coastal habitat monitoring and management. Marine Biology Research 3(5): 275-288.

Uiblein F., Causse R. 2013. A new deep-water goatfish of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from Vanuatu, South Pacific. Zootaxa 3666(3): 337-344.

Uiblein F., Gledhill D.C. 2015. A new goatfish of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from Australia and Vanuatu, with inter-and intraspecific comparisons. Marine Biology Research 11(5): 475-491.

Uiblein F., Gouws G. 2014. A new goatfish species of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) based on molecular and morphological screening and subsequent taxonomic analysis. Marine Biology Research 10(7): 655-681.

Uiblein F., Heemstra P.C. 2010. A taxonomic review of the Western Indian Ocean goathfishes of the genus Upeneus (Family Mullidae), with descriptions of four new species. Smithiana Bulletin 11: 35-71.

Uiblein F., Heemstra P.C. 2011. A new goatfish, Upeneus seychellensis sp. nov. (Mullidae), from the Seychelles Bank, with remarks on Upeneus guttatus and a key to Western Indian Ocean Upeneus species. Marine Biology Research 7(7): 637-650.

Uiblein F., Lisher M. 2013. A new goatfish of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from Angoche, northern Mozambique. Zootaxa 3717(1): 85-95.

Uiblein F., Motomura H. 2021. Three new goatfishes of the genus Upeneus from the Eastern Indian Ocean and Western Pacific, with an updated taxonomic account for U. itoui (Mullidae: japonicus-species group). Zootaxa 4938(3): 298-324.

Uiblein F., White W.T. 2015. A new goatfish of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from Lombok, Indonesia and first verified record of U. asymmetricus for the Indian Ocean. Zootaxa 3980(1): 51-66.

Uiblein F., Gledhill D.C., Peristiwady T. 2017. Two new goatfishes of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from Australia and Indonesia. Zootaxa 4318(2): 295-311.

Uiblein F., Gledhill D.C., Pavlov D.A., Hoang T.A., Shaheen S. 2019. Three new goatfishes of the genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from the Indo-Pacific, with a redescription of colour patterns in U. margarethae. Zootaxa 4683(2): 151-196

Uiblein F., Gouws G., Lisher M., Malauene B.S. 2020. Upeneus floros, a new goatfish from South Africa and Mozambique, with updated taxonomic accounts for U. guttatus and U. pori and a key to Western Indian Ocean Upeneus species (Mullidae). Zootaxa 4834(4): 523-555.

Uiblein F., Hoang T.A., Alama U., Causse R., Chacate O.E., Fahmi G., Matiku P. 2018. A new species and new records of goatfishes of the genus Parupeneus (Mullidae) from the Indian Ocean, with updated occurrence information for P. jansenii in the Western Pacific. Cybium: International Journal of Ichthyology 42(3): 229-256.

Wahlert G.von. 1955. Die Type und Typoide des Ubersee- Museums Bremen. 2: Pisces. verdffentlichungen aus dem t'berseemuseum Bremen. Reihe. A, Band 2. Heft 5. pp: 323-326.

Whitehead P.J.P., Bauchot M.L., Hureau J.C., Nilesen J., Tortonese E. 1984-1986: Fishes of the north-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Vols. I-III, UNESCO, Paris. 1473 p.

Wickler W. 1968. Mimicry in Plants and Animals. McGraw Hill, New York. 234 p.

Yamashita M., Golani D., Motomura H. 2011. A new species of Upeneus (Perciformes: Mullidae) from southern Japan. Zootaxa 3107(1): 47-58.

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.